Assorted ReferencesAthenian influence In Athens: Other notable buildingsEnglish pottery In pottery: Porcelainfurniture In furniture: Greece and Rome In furniture: 19th centuryinterior design In interior design: 19th and early 20th centuries in Europesofa tables In drop-leaf table
An exuberant taste for Egyptian motifs resulted from the Napoleonic expeditions to Egypt in 1798 and became part of the Regency fashion. Variations in the Regency period also produced a resurgence of the Chinese theme seen in imitation bamboo and in painted and “japanned” black and gold lacquer pieces, most notably at Brighton Pavilion, where the prince ordered its use. Another royal inclination produced the taste for French furniture, especially the type ornamented with brass inlay marquetry.
Bartolomé Ordóñez, sculptor who was one of the originators of the Spanish school of Renaissance sculpture. Influenced by the masters of the Italian Renaissance, he evolved his own pure style, which was widely imitated after his early death.
A member of a wealthy family, Ordóñez apparently studied…
Regency style, decorative arts produced during the regency of George, prince of Wales, and during his entire reign as King George IV of England, ending in 1830. The major source of inspiration for Regency taste was found in Greek and Roman antiquity, from which designers borrowed both structural and ornamental elements. The classical revival of Regency style, emphasizing purity of detail and structure, adhered to a stricter archaeological interpretation of antique modes than either the Neoclassicism of the 18th century or the concurrent French Empire style.
More About Paneling3 references found in Britannica articles
…(1804–14), and in England as Regency, for the period (1811–20) when George III was too deranged to rule. Furniture design, for the most part light and graceful during the early part of the Neoclassical period in France, had become more consciously luxurious as the Revolution was approached.
During the Empire…
Framed panelling had been used in ancient times, as examples found at Herculaneum testify; its reintroduction in the Burgundian Netherlands at the beginning of the 15th century was an improvement that soon spread throughout western Europe.
Panelled construction solved the problem of building large surface areas,…
Wall panelling has been popular for hundreds of years, and, indeed, a natural wood texture adds warmth and elegance. The only way the craftsmen of earlier periods were able to apply wood panelling was in frames (stiles and rails) or wainscotting, since wood panelling was made…
Assorted Referenceshistory of furniture making In furniture: Later Middle Agesinterior design development In interior design: Walls In interior design: Renaissance to the end of the 18th century
Architects John Nash, Henry Holland, Charles H. Tatham, and Thomas Hope were the principal arbiters of Regency taste. Hope, Thomas Sheraton, and George Smith published designs for Regency furniture.
In Europe, simple paneling on doors was used in Greco-Roman classical architecture, as it was in the transitional Italian Romanesque interiors. Its extensive use on walls and furnishings, however, began in the Gothic period. The richness and warmth of interior wood paneling is a highly characteristic aspect of the Tudor and Elizabethan styles of decoration in England. Early Tudor walls are profusely carved, often in fielded panels, in which the central area is raised above the framing. One particularly popular form of fielded panel was the linenfold, featuring stylized carvings that represent vertically folded linen; Hampton Court Palace near London contains many superb examples. In the English Renaissance, paneling became simpler; in the France of kings Louis XIV and XV, it was lavish and ornate; and in the Italian Renaissance, architects restricted its use to ceilings. In 17th-century New England, paneling was used but without decoration; in the 18th century it became more decorative, especially in the Southern colonies of what became the United States.
IntroductionPrinciples of interior designAesthetic components of designElements of designConcepts of designDesign relationshipsModes of compositionSymbolism and stylePhysical components of designCeilingsFloorsWallsWindows and doorsOther componentsFurniture and accessoriesLightingFabricsNatural elementsDesign procedurePreliminary phasesDesign and presentationFinal drawings and specificationsConstructionKinds of interiorsResidential interiorsPublic interiorsSpace planningGovernmental interiorsInstitutional interiorsCommercial interiorsReligious interiorsIndustrial interiorsSpecial interiorsOrigins of interior designPrimitive peoplesOrigins in Western antiquityInterior design in the WestAncient worldEgyptMesopotamiaCreteGreeceRomeMiddle AgesByzantiumEarly medieval EuropeLate medieval EuropeIslāmic countriesRenaissance to the end of the 18th centuryFranceSpainNorthern EuropeEnglandUnited States19th and early 20th centuries in EuropeLate 18th to early 20th centuries in the U.
SClassic movement after the Revolution, 1785–1835The Romantic movement and the battle of the styles, 1835–192520th centuryInterior design in the EastChinaJapanIndia
Art Deco Art Nouveau Dress Automaton Calligraphy Heraldry Interior design Jewelry Mosaic Pottery
…French Empire furniture, in English Regency, and in special forms of considerable originality in Denmark and Sweden around 1800.…
…influence in England during the Regency period (1811–30). It is noticeable on the porcelain vases made at such factories as Worcester, Derby, and Rockingham. They were often decorated with well-painted topographical subjects that were no longer confined by frames but ran around the vase as a continuous landscape.
More About Regency style6 references found in Britannica articles
In all these historical instances the paneling was almost always made of either oak or pine. In the 20th century an enormous variety of materials came into use: solid wood (walnut, mahogany, birch, redwood), plywood (a thin wood veneer on a plywood base), vinyl with surface imitating wood grain, hardboard (or pressed wood), pegboard, and even translucent materials such as lucite.
Wood panelling with flat pilasters and a molded frieze forms the lower part of the interior wall decoration, with the fine series of historical and allegorical paintings, above, divided into panels between painted and gilded moldings and pilasters.
The ceilings of a later date are particularly…
Interior design, planning and design of man-made spaces, a part of environmental design and closely related to architecture. Although the desire to create a pleasant environment is as old as civilization itself, the field of interior design is relatively new.
Since at least the middle of the 20th century, the term interior decorator has been so loosely applied as to be nearly meaningless, with the result that other, more descriptive terms have come into use.
The term interior design indicates a broader area of activity and at the same time suggests its status as a serious profession. In some European …(100 of 39636 words)
Enhance your search results page with Britannica’s FREE Chrome extension. Install now – FACTS matter.
Paneling, also spelled panelling, in architecture and design, decorative treatment of walls, ceilings, doors, and furniture consisting of a series of wide, thin sheets of wood, called panels, framed together by narrower, thicker strips of wood. The latter are called styles (the external vertical strips), muntins (the internal vertical strips), and rails (the horizontal strips).
…and influenced British Georgian and Regency architecture through the engravings of the Edinburgh artist “Athenian” Stuart. Farther east lay the Odeum of Pericles, and to the west are traces (420 bce) of the precinct of Asclepius, the god of healing, which took the form of a hospital portico for patients…
Shihuangdi Tiananmen Square incident Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Hip-hop Cuban Revolution
Model of an interior in Regency style with (foreground) a rotunda, presumably based on a design by Sir John Soane, and (background) a library, adapted from designs made in 1767 by Robert Adam for Kenwood House, London; mixed-media miniature by the workshop of Mrs.
James Ward Thorne, c. 1930–40; in the Art Institute of Chicago.Gift of Mrs. James Ward Thorne, 1941.1198/Photography © The Art Institute of Chicago
…it is commonly called the Regency style. Two French architects, Charles Percier and Pierre Fontaine, who designed the furnishings for the staterooms of Napoleon, contributed in great measure to the creation of the style.
Their ideas were incorporated and propagated in Recueil de décorations intérieures (1801 and 1812; “Collection of…
Wainscot, interior paneling in general and, more specifically, paneling that covers only the lower portion of an interior wall or partition. It has a decorative or protective function and is usually of wood, although tile and marble have at times been popular.
The molding along the upper edge is…
The elaboration of ornament on the flat surfaces of Regency furniture derived from the rich contrast of exotic wood veneers and application of metals or painting rather than extensive carving or complicated contours. A strong feeling for utility combined with visually pleasing elements and an integration of architecture, interior design, and furniture is characteristic.
linenfold panelingDetail of linenfold paneling.Hemera Technologies—AbleStock.com/Thinkstock