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Interior design
Interior Decorating

Interior Decorating Interior Decorating

“Actually use your beautiful things! I have a chocolate lab and white furniture in my living room. It took some training, but now he knows the furniture is off limits.”—Lindsey Lane

Look Inside Jamie Drake’s Ultra Chic New York City Apartment

  • Interior design
  • Architectural design
  • Home economics
  • Decorative arts

By the turn of the 20th century, amateur advisors and publications were increasingly challenging the monopoly that the large retail companies had on interior design. English feminist author Mary Haweis wrote a series of widely read essays in the 1880s in which she derided the eagerness with which aspiring middle-class people furnished their houses according to the rigid models offered to them by the retailers.[10] She advocated the individual adoption of a particular style, tailor made to the individual needs and preferences of the customer:

“My clients ask about the most important pieces to invest in: I believe in upholstery and art! They help anchor a room.”—Ashley Darryl

“If punk rock has taught me anything, it’s to do everything yourself. All of my favorite interior designers were self-taught.”—Max Humphrey

Interior design has become the subject of television shows. In the United Kingdom, popular interior design and decorating programs include 60 Minute Makeover (ITV), Changing Rooms (BBC), and Selling Houses (Channel 4). Famous interior designers whose work is featured in these programs include Linda Barker and Laurence Llewelyn-Bowen. In the United States, the TLC Network aired a popular program called Trading Spaces, a show based on the UK program Changing Rooms. In addition, both HGTV and the DIY Network also televise many programs about interior design and decorating, featuring the works of a variety of interior designers, decorators, and home improvement experts in a myriad of projects.

Many of the most famous designers and decorators during the 20th century had no formal training. Some examples include Sister Parish, Robert Denning and Vincent Fourcade, Kerry Joyce, Kelly Wearstler, Stéphane Boudin, Georges Geffroy, Emilio Terry, Carlos de Beistegui, Nina Petronzio, Lorenzo Mongiardino, and David Nightingale Hicks.

  • 3.2 Commercial
  • 3.1 Residential
  • 3.3 Other

From industrial-chic rolling carts to gold tray tables, these accents will steal the television spotlight

Fictional interior decorators include the Sugarbaker sisters on Designing Women and Grace Adler on Will & Grace. There is also another show called Home MADE. There are two teams and two houses and whoever has the designed and made the worst room, according to the judges, is eliminated. Another show on the Style Network, hosted by Niecy Nash, is Clean House where they re-do messy homes into themed rooms that the clients would like. Other shows include Design on a Dime, Designed to Sell, and The Decorating Adventures of Ambrose Price. The show called Design Star has become more popular through the 5 seasons that have already aired. The winners of this show end up getting their own TV shows, of which are Color Splash hosted by David Bromstad, Myles of Style hosted by Kim Myles, Paint-Over! hosted by Jennifer Bertrand, The Antonio Treatment hosted by Antonio Ballatore, and finally Secrets from a Stylist hosted by Emily Henderson. Bravo also has a variety of shows that explore the lives of interior designers. These include Flipping Out, which explores the life of Jeff Lewis and his team of designers; Million Dollar Decorators explores the lives of interior designers Nathan Turner, Jeffrey Alan Marks, Mary McDonald, Kathryn Ireland, and Martyn Lawrence Bullard.

“Pull floor patterns from ancient buildings. One inspired the checkerboard pattern of the marble floors in my Los Angeles home.”—Nate Berkus

Illustration from The Grammar of Ornament (1856), by interior designer Owen Jones.

Many interior design magazines exist to offer advice regarding color palette, furniture, art, and other elements that fall under the umbrella of interior design. These magazine often focus on related subjects to draw a more specific audience. For instance, architecture as a primary aspect of Dwell, while Veranda is well known as a luxury living magazine. Lonny Magazine and the newly relaunched, Domino Magazine, cater to a young, hip, metropolitan audience, and emphasize accessibility and a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach to interior design.

Take the picture above as an example. Since the fresh, white color carries most of the room, that is clearly the dominant shade. Meanwhile, the mustard yellow found in the chairs and accent pillows is a solid choice for a secondary color. The blue accent wall is undoubtedly the boldest shade.

“In the master suite, decor can deviate from the common areas and really reflect your personality.”—Ali Vanderpool and Ariana Villalta

The interior walls of the home are brightly painted by the women, who work in defined patterns with lines, triangles, squares, diagonals and tree-like patterns. “Some of the large triangles represent mountains. Zigzag lines stand for water and also for lightning. Small triangles, especially when the widest area is at the top, are found in pre-Islamic representations of female figures. That the small triangles found in the wall paintings in ‘Asir are called banat may be a cultural remnant of a long-forgotten past.”[39]

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When you’re not sure where to start with a design, sometimes it can help to go all the way back to the fundamentals. With that in mind, we’ve brought you three interior design rules that can help you balance out just about any design. Regardless of which room your working on or your personal sense of style, you may want to consider giving these a try. It never hurts to go back to the basics.

“The most important first step in design is a good floor plan.”—Jessica Helgerson

This type of firm emerged in America after the Civil War. The Herter Brothers, founded by two German emigre brothers, began as an upholstery warehouse and became one of the first firms of furniture makers and interior decorators. With their own design office and cabinet-making and upholstery workshops, Herter Brothers were prepared to accomplish every aspect of interior furnishing including decorative paneling and mantels, wall and ceiling decoration, patterned floors, and carpets and draperies.[6]

  • Pierre François Léonard Fontaine
  • Arthur Stannard Vernay
  • Margery Hoffman Smith
  • Syrie Maugham
  • Dorothy Draper
  • Elsie de Wolfe
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Sibyl Colefax

Follow these interior design rules to help you bring your rooms to the next level. Image: Martha O’Hara Interiors

The interior design profession became more established after World War II. From the 1950s onwards, spending on the home increased. Interior design courses were established, requiring the publication of textbooks and reference sources. Historical accounts of interior designers and firms distinct from the decorative arts specialists were made available. Organisations to regulate education, qualifications, standards and practices, etc. were established for the profession.[18]

Residential design is the design of the interior of private residences. As this type design is very specific for individual situations, the needs and wants of the individual are paramount in this area of interior design. The interior designer may work on the project from the initial planning stage or may work on the remodelling of an existing structure. It is often a very involved process that takes months to fine-tune and create a space with the vision of the client.[24]

  • 2.2 Color in interior design
  • 2.1 Interior designer

“Look up! We use ceilings a lot. Through them, we define the lines and beauty of a space.”—Julio Salcedo

  • Axel Springer Tower [de], Berlin
  • Balboa Bay Club
  • Hotel San Domenico in Taormina
  • Apothecary room
  • Lounge (1850)
  • Grand Central Terminal in Midtown Manhattan
  • Bar in Rotterdam
  • Villa del Balbianello

These guest bedrooms from the AD archive show how stylish homes across the globe accommodate their visitors

Interior design is the art and science of understanding people’s behavior to create functional spaces within a building. Decoration is the furnishing or adorning of a space with fashionable or beautiful things. In short, interior designers may decorate, but decorators do not design.

“Don’t settle. If you have your heart set on a piece, don’t try to find something similar just to save money. Chances are, you’ll never be completely satisfied with the substitute (or its quality).”—Brian Watford

Interior Designer Muriel Brandolini’s Vibrant Hamptons Beach House

In the past, interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building.[1] The profession of interior design has been a consequence of the development of society and the complex architecture that has resulted from the development of industrial processes. The pursuit of effective use of space, user well-being and functional design has contributed to the development of the contemporary interior design profession. The profession of interior design is separate and distinct from the role of interior decorator, a term commonly used in the US. The term is less common in the UK, where the profession of interior design is still unregulated and therefore, strictly speaking, not yet officially a profession.

In some cases, licensed professionals review the work and sign it before submitting the design for approval by clients or construction permisioning. The need for licensed review and signature varies by locality, relevant legislation, and scope of work. Their work can involve significant travel to visit different locations. However, with technology development, the process of contacting clients and communicating design alternatives has become easier and requires less travel.[26] They also renovate a space to satisfy the specific taste for a client.

“Get creative when thinking about form and function. A client in a traditional Georgian home needed it to work for her modern way of entertaining. We opted for an asymmetrical, organic space that encourages guests to float through the room while engaged in conversation.” —Kate Coughlin

References External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Interior design.

As the name of this rule suggests, your dominant shade will cover about 60% of the room. Since it plays such a large role in your design, you may want this to be your most neutral choice. The dominant shade is a good choice for things like your wall color and floor coverings. Then, your secondary shade can be a bit bolder and is usually fit for furniture. Finally, your accent color is your boldest choice and can be found in accessories.

“Faux paint, lush lacquer, or wallpaper on a ceiling will garner that ‘Wow’ response.” —Leslie May

From brunches to dinner parties, every meal feels special when you’re sitting at one of these beauties

In ancient Egypt, “soul houses” or models of houses were placed in tombs as receptacles for food offerings. From these, it is possible to discern details about the interior design of different residences throughout the different Egyptian dynasties, such as changes in ventilation, porticoes, columns, loggias, windows, and doors.[3]

The Art Deco style began in Europe in the early years of the 20th century, with the waning of Art Nouveau. The term “Art Deco” was taken from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes, a world’s fair held in Paris in 1925.[27] Art Deco rejected many traditional classical influences in favour of more streamlined geometric forms and metallic color. The Art Deco style influenced all areas of design, especially interior design, because it was the first style of interior decoration to spotlight new technologies and materials.[28]

“Old and new belong together. A mix of modern pieces and antiques never tires.”—Caleb Anderson

The newest addition to the bunch, the 3/3 vertical rule comes to us courtesy of designer Mark McCauley, who outlined the concept in his book, Color Therapy at Home: Real-Life Solutions for Adding Color to Your Life. Like many other current trends, this rule builds on our persistent desire to assimilate the great outdoors with our interior aesthetics.

Rich, earthy tones and pops of orange imbue these rooms with a cozy ambience

We hope you like the products we recommend. Just so you are aware, Freshome may collect a share of sales from the links on this page. 

  • 4.1 Education
  • 4.2 Working conditions

Hues of blue, green, and gray set the tone in the kitchen, bedroom, and more

Someone may wish to specialize and develop technical knowledge specific to one area or type of interior design, such as residential design, commercial design, hospitality design, healthcare design, universal design, exhibition design, furniture design, and spatial branding. Interior design is a creative profession that is relatively new, constantly evolving, and often confusing to the public. It is not an artistic pursuit and relies on research from many fields to provide a well-trained understanding of how people are influenced by their environments.

Turn your dining room into a chic space for entertaining with ideas from these sophisticated spaces from the pages of Architectural Digest. Plus, find ideas for setting a beautiful table and an array of dining tables and chairs to suit any style.

“Follow your gut. If you have to talk yourself into liking something, you probably don’t.”—Olivia Erwin

Interior designer implies that there is more of an emphasis on planning, functional design and the effective use of space, as compared to interior decorating. An interior designer in fineline design can undertake projects that include arranging the basic layout of spaces within a building as well as projects that require an understanding of technical issues such as window and door positioning, acoustics, and lighting.[1] Although an interior designer may create the layout of a space, they may not alter load-bearing walls without having their designs stamped for approval by a structural engineer. Interior designers often work directly with architects, engineers and contractors.

“Courtyards and upper pillared porticoes are principal features of the best Nadjdi architecture, in addition to the fine incised plaster wood (jiss) and painted window shutters, which decorate the reception rooms. Good examples of plasterwork can often be seen in the gaping ruins of torn-down buildings- the effect is light, delicate and airy. It is usually around the majlis, around the coffee hearth and along the walls above where guests sat on rugs, against cushions. Doughty wondered if this “parquetting of jis”, this “gypsum fretwork… all adorning and unenclosed” originated from India. However, the Najd fretwork seems very different from that seen in the Eastern Province and Oman, which are linked to Indian traditions, and rather resembles the motifs and patterns found in ancient Mesopotamia. The rosette, the star, the triangle and the stepped pinnacle pattern of dadoes are all ancient patterns, and can be found all over the Middle East of antiquity. Al-Qassim Province seems to be the home of this art, and there it is normally worked in hard white plaster (though what you see is usually begrimed by the smoke of the coffee hearth). In Riyadh, examples can be seen in unadorned clay.[41]

Find inspiration for your living room design in these collections of rooms from the archives of Architectural Digest. These chic spaces showcase genius ideas for styling your fireplace mantel, gorgeous color schemes, and smart ways to feature ottomans. Plus, find the perfect cocktail table to complete the room.

Odd-numbered groupings create more visual interest than even numbered groupings. In particular, three seems to be the ideal number for a grouping as opposed to one, five, or even seven because the former might feel too simple while the latter two run the risk of appearing overly cluttered.

“One of my strongest convictions, and one of the first canons of good taste, is that our houses, like the fish’s shell and the bird’s nest, ought to represent our individual taste and habits.

In England, Syrie Maugham became a legendary interior designer credited with designing the first all-white room. Starting her career in the early 1910s, her international reputation soon grew; she later expanded her business to New York City and Chicago.[19] Born during the Victorian Era, a time characterized by dark colors and small spaces, she instead designed rooms filled with light and furnished in multiple shades of white and mirrored screens. In addition to mirrored screens, her trademark pieces included: books covered in white vellum, cutlery with white porcelain handles, console tables with plaster palm-frond, shell, or dolphin bases, upholstered and fringed sleigh beds, fur carpets, dining chairs covered in white leather, and lamps of graduated glass balls, and wreaths.[20]

Interior designers must be highly skilled in order to create interior environments that are functional, safe, and adhere to building codes, regulations and ADA requirements. They go beyond the selection of color palettes and furnishings and apply their knowledge to the development of construction documents, occupancy loads, healthcare regulations and sustainable design principles, as well as the management and coordination of professional services including mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and life safety—all to ensure that people can live, learn or work in an innocuous environment that is also aesthetically pleasing.

Art Deco rejected traditional materials of decoration and interior design, opting instead to use more unusual materials such as chrome, glass, stainless steel, shiny fabrics, mirrors, aluminium, lacquer, inlaid wood, sharkskin, and zebra skin.[28] The use of harder, metallic materials was chosen to celebrate the machine age. These materials reflected the dawning modern age that was ushered in after the end of the First World War. The innovative combinations of these materials created contrasts that were very popular at the time – for example the mixing together of highly polished wood and black lacquer with satin and furs.[32] The barber shop in the Austin Reed store in London was designed by P. J. Westwood. It was soon regarded as the trendiest barber shop in Britain due to its use of metallic materials.[31]

“Classics never go out of style. I hesitated about doing a white kitchen in my own house, thinking I’d been there, done that. But I’m so glad I did. I will never tire of it.”—Alexandra Kaehler

In the 1950s and 1960s, upholsterers began to expand their business remits. They framed their business more broadly and in artistic terms and began to advertise their furnishings to the public. To meet the growing demand for contract interior work on projects such as offices, hotels, and public buildings, these businesses became much larger and more complex, employing builders, joiners, plasterers, textile designers, artists, and furniture designers, as well as engineers and technicians to fulfil the job. Firms began to publish and circulate catalogs with prints for different lavish styles to attract the attention of expanding middle classes.[4]

Look Inside Michael S. Smith’s Eccentric 1970s Rancho Mirage Residence

See How Victoria Hagen Preserved the New England Charm of her Nantucket Getaway

The 10-30-60 rule is all about creating the perfect color palette. Image: Lionel Moreau Photography

From sleek and modern to 18th-century ornate, these mantels demonstrate the perfect way to accessorize a fireplace of any style

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Art Deco style is mainly based on geometric shapes, streamlining, and clean lines.[29][30] The style offered a sharp, cool look of mechanized living utterly at odds with anything that came before.[31]

The designer’s exquisitely appointed residence, in a marquee tower, is geared toward company and cocktails

“Use tall pieces in a low-height room. Short furnishings would make the ceiling feel that much lower to the ground.” —Jason Oliver Nixon

McCauley’s concept works like this: if nature were a framed viewpoint, the darkest colors would be found towards the ground. (Think dark grasses, stones, and mud.) Meanwhile, the medium tones of trees and plant life would be in the middle. Lightly-toned skies would round out the top of the frame.

Elsie De Wolfe was one of the first interior designers. Rejecting the Victorian style she grew up with, she chose a more vibrant scheme, along with more comfortable furniture in the home. Her designs were light, with fresh colors and delicate Chinoiserie furnishings, as opposed to the Victorian preference of heavy, red drapes and upholstery, dark wood and intensely patterned wallpapers. Her designs were also more practical;[15] she eliminated the clutter that occupied the Victorian home, enabling people to entertain more guests comfortably. In 1905, de Wolfe was commissioned for the interior design of the Colony Club on Madison Avenue; its interiors garnered her recognition almost over night.[16][17] She compiled her ideas into her widely read 1913 book, The House in Good Taste.[18]

Interior design has also become the subject of radio shows. In the U.S., popular interior design & lifestyle shows include Martha Stewart Living and Living Large featuring Karen Mills. Famous interior designers whose work is featured on these programs include Bunny Williams, Barbara Barry, and Kathy Ireland, among others.

There are various paths that one can take to become a professional interior designer. All of these paths involve some form of training. Working with a successful professional designer is an informal method of training and has previously been the most common method of education. In many states, however, this path alone cannot lead to licensing as a professional interior designer. Training through an institution such as a college, art or design school or university is a more formal route to professional practice.

Event Designer and Decorator Ken Fulk’s House in San Francisco

Ellen Mazur Thomson, author of Origins of Graphic Design in America (1997), determined that professional status is achieved through education, self-imposed standards and professional gate-keeping organizations.[18] Having achieved this, interior design became an accepted profession.

After you have the colors under control, it’s time to look at your accessories. We’ve talked about the importance of purposefully styling surfaces and grouping accent pieces before, but if you take one tip away from this, it should be — when in doubt, follow the rule of three.

Alexa Hampton Blends Classical with Contemporary in Her Family’s New York Home

A pivotal figure in popularizing theories of interior design to the middle class was the architect Owen Jones, one of the most influential design theorists of the nineteenth century.[7] Jones’ first project was his most important—in 1851, he was responsible for not only the decoration of Joseph Paxton’s gigantic Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition but also the arrangement of the exhibits within. He chose a controversial palette of red, yellow, and blue for the interior ironwork and, despite initial negative publicity in the newspapers, was eventually unveiled by Queen Victoria to much critical acclaim. His most significant publication was The Grammar of Ornament (1856),[8] in which Jones formulated 37 key principles of interior design and decoration.

There are a wide range of working conditions and employment opportunities within interior design. Large and tiny corporations often hire interior designers as employees on regular working hours. Designers for smaller firms and online renovation platforms usually work on a contract or per-job basis. Self-employed designers, which make up 26% of interior designers,[25] usually work the most hours. Interior designers often work under stress to meet deadlines, stay on budget, and meet clients’ needs.

It was not until later that specific representation for the interior design profession was developed. The US National Society of Interior Designers was established in 1957, while in the UK the Interior Decorators and Designers Association was established in 1966. Across Europe, other organisations such as The Finnish Association of Interior Architects (1949) were being established and in 1994 the International Interior Design Association was founded.[18]

Some people have a natural eye for design, but if you’re more in the camp of those who can’t do anything without consulting Pinterest board upon Pinterest board before making any major changes, we feel you. We’d love to have an interior designer on speed dial before deciding exactly where and how hang to hang that sweet new wall art we bought on a whim, but until we win the lottery, we’ll have to settle for trusting our guts, and taking plenty of design tips where we can get them. We’ve compiled some secrets straight from the pros to help you with all your decorating needs.

“Never underestimate the power of paint. You don’t have to break the bank to achieve a new look. A fresh coat in a vibrant color takes an old piece of furniture or empty white room and gives it new life.”—Chauncey Boothby

Other areas of specialization include amusement and theme park design, museum and exhibition design, exhibit design, event design (including ceremonies, weddings, baby and bridal showers, parties, conventions, and concerts), interior and prop styling, craft styling, food styling, product styling, tablescape design, theatre and performance design, stage and set design, scenic design, and production design for film and television. Beyond those, interior designers, particularly those with graduate education, can specialize in healthcare design, gerontological design, educational facility design, and other areas that require specialized knowledge. Some university programs offer graduate studies in theses and other areas. For example, both Cornell University and the University of Florida offer interior design graduate programs in environment and behavior studies.

Jones was employed by some of the leading interior design firms of the day; in the 1860s, he worked in collaboration with the London firm Jackson & Graham to produce furniture and other fittings for high-profile clients including art collector Alfred Morrison as well as Ismail Pasha, Khedive of Egypt.

The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the English-speaking world and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate.

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Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space. An interior designer is someone who plans, researches, coordinates, and manages such projects. Interior design is a multifaceted profession that includes conceptual development, space planning, site inspections, programming, research, communicating with the stakeholders of a project, construction management, and execution of the design.

Color is a powerful design tool in decoration, as well as in interior design, which is the art of composing and coordinating colors together to create a stylish scheme on the interior architecture of the space.[21]

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“Make sure you’re having fun. What’s more fun than making your own home more beautiful.”—Eche Martinez

“Choosing the right light bulb is very important. LED bulbs are energy efficient, and they can look great.”—Paloma Contreras

Modern design grew out of the decorative arts, mostly from the Art Deco, in the early 20th century.[38] One of the first to introduce this style was Frank Lloyd Wright, who hadn’t become hugely popularized until completing the house called Fallingwater in the 1930s. Modern art reached its peak in the 1950s and ’60s, which is why designers and decorators today may refer to modern design as being “mid-century.”[38] Modern art does not refer to the era or age of design and is not the same as contemporary design, a term used by interior designers for a shifting group of recent styles and trends.[38]

  • 1.1 Commercial interior design and management
  • 1.3 Expansion
  • 1.2 Transition to professional interior design

“Art, art, art! Start young and buy the best you can afford. Its ability to transform a room is unlike any other design tool.”—Jean Liu

  • 5.3 Arab Materials
  • 5.1 Art Deco
  • 5.2 Modern Art

“Until recently when a man wanted to furnish he would visit all the dealers and select piece by piece of furniture ….Today he sends for a dealer in art furnishings and fittings who surveys all the rooms in the house and he brings his artistic mind to bear on the subject.

“[13]

Combining colors together could result in creating a state of mind as seen by the observer, and could eventually result in positive or negative effects on them. Colors make the room feel either more calm, cheerful, comfortable, stressful, or dramatic. Color combination make a tiny room seem larger or smaller.[23] So it is the Interior designer profession to choose appropriate colors for a place in a way people want to look and feel in the space.[22]

The geometric designs and heavy lines seem to be adapted from the area’s textile and weaving patterns. “In contrast with the sobriety of architecture and decoration in the rest of Arabia, exuberant color and ornamentation characterize those of Asir. The painting extends into the house over the walls and doors, up the staircases, and onto the furniture itself. When a house is being painted, women from the community help each other finish the job. The building then displays their shared taste and knowledge. Mothers pass these on to their daughters. This artwork is based on a geometry of straight lines and suggests the patterns common to textile weaving, with solid bands of different colors. Certain motifs reappear, such as the triangular mihrab or ‘niche’ and the palmette. In the past, paint was produced from mineral and vegetable pigments. Cloves and alfalfa yielded green. Blue came from the indigo plant. Red came from pomegranates and a certain mud. Paintbrushes were created from the tough hair found in a goat’s tail. Today, however, women use modern manufactured paint to create new looks, which have become an indicator of social and economic change.”[40]

“The splurge everyone should make is a fabulous master bathroom. I used hand-painted porcelain sinks in mine.”—Todd Richesin

Terracotta Art Deco sunburst design above front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles; built 1930.

“Wicker is an element I love for its texture and versatility. Wicker baskets are so functional for storage, but a wicker animal brings a sense of whimsy.” —Amy Berry

“Buy one good piece of furniture every year, and in five years, you’ll have five pieces. Everything else may change, but these will remain constant.”—Jeffrey Bilhuber

Black and white was also a very popular color scheme during the 1920s and 1930s. Black and white checkerboard tiles, floors and wallpapers were very trendy at the time.[35] As the style developed, bright vibrant colors became popular as well.[36]

We asked some of the top designers in the world for their advice on everything from styling a cocktail table to creating a dreamy bedroom. Transform your space with these smart tips and tricks from the pros, including Alexa Hampton, Ryan Korban, and Justina Blakeney.

This interior was designed by John Dibblee Crace, President of the Institute of British Decorators, established in 1899.

In the mid-to-late 19th century, interior design services expanded greatly, as the middle class in industrial countries grew in size and prosperity and began to desire the domestic trappings of wealth to cement their new status. Large furniture firms began to branch out into general interior design and management, offering full house furnishings in a variety of styles. This business model flourished from the mid-century to 1914, when this role was increasingly usurped by independent, often amateur, designers. This paved the way for the emergence of the professional interior design in the mid-20th century.[4]

An electric wire reel reused as a center table at a Rio de Janeiro decoration fair

Once dilapidated, now sensational, the acclaimed designer transformed his home in the California desert into a beloved haven for him and diplomat James Costas

Designer Anouska Hempel’s Historic Manor in the English Countryside

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Installment by L. Gargantini for the Bolzano fair, 1957. Photo by Paolo Monti (Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC).

“Update your light switches! Elegant controls add a spectacular element to an older home or character to a new one.” —Courtney Hill

In Manhattan, a proper dining room is a luxury to be celebrated with amazing interiors

“When you’re given a dark space that doesn’t have great light, create your own light. In this kitchen, we used Sherwin-​Williams’s sunny Ener­getic Orange, and it turned out just fabulous— so cheerful.”—Matthew Boland

  • Alexa Hampton Blends Classical with Contemporary in Her Family’s New York HomeSetting her beloved neutrals aside, decorator Alexa Hampton invigorates her young family’s Manhattan residence with rich colors and lively patterns
  • Look Inside Jamie Drake’s Ultra Chic New York City ApartmentThe designer’s exquisitely appointed residence, in a marquee tower, is geared toward company and cocktails
  • Designer Anthony Hail’s Luxurious San Francisco Home
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“In an open seating plan, always use a well-proportioned statement coffee table to ground the arrangement and give it a sense of place.”—Sean Michael

An unexpected headboard may be exactly what you need to kick your bedroom up a notch

Tour stunning spaces from the Architectural Digest archives and find bedroom design ideas that will help you create a restful retreat of your own. We’ve also rounded up unique headboards and nightstands that will catch the eye in any space.

The designer crafts a pitch-perfect Nantucket residence for her family that brilliantly reflects the island’s classic style

In America, Candace Wheeler was one of the first woman interior designers and helped encourage a new style of American design. She was instrumental in the development of art courses for women in a number of major American cities and was considered a national authority on homedesign. An important influence on the new profession was The Decoration of Houses, a manual of interior design written by Edith Wharton with architect Ogden Codman in 1897 in America. In the book, the authors denounced Victorian-style interior decoration and interior design, especially those rooms that were decorated with heavy window curtains, Victorian bric-a-brac, and overstuffed furniture. They argued that such rooms emphasized upholstery at the expense of proper space planning and architectural design and were, therefore, uncomfortable and rarely used. The book is considered a seminal work, and its success led to the emergence of professional decorators working in the manner advocated by its authors, most notably Elsie de Wolfe.[14]

The tastemaking interior designer enlivens her Hampton Bays, New York, beach house with vivacious hues and a charismatic mix of vintage and contemporary furnishings

By 1900, the situation was described by The Illustrated Carpenter and Builder:

Fireplaces are a cozy addition to these 23 bedrooms from the AD archives

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Get the latest in design, decorating, celebrity style, shopping, and more.

In 1882, the London Directory of the Post Office listed 80 interior decorators. Some of the most distinguished companies of the period were Crace, Waring & Gillowm and Holland & Sons; famous decorators employed by these firms included Thomas Edward Collcutt, Edward William Godwin, Charles Barry, Gottfried Semper, and George Edmund Street.[9]

3 Powerful Interior Design Rules That Can Transform Your Home

Interior design was previously seen as playing a secondary role to architecture. It also has many connections to other design disciplines, involving the work of architects, industrial designers, engineers, builders, craftsmen, etc. For these reasons, the government of interior design standards and qualifications was often incorporated into other professional organisations that involved design.[18] Organisations such as the Chartered Society of Designers, established in the UK in 1986, and the American Designers Institute, founded in 1938, governed various areas of design.

  • Experiential interior design
  • Environmental psychology and Interior design psychology
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  • Blueprint
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  • American Society of Interior Designers
  • Window treatment
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  • Interior architecture
  • British Institute of Interior Design
  • Fuzzy architectural spatial analysis
  • Chartered Society of Designers incorporating the British Institute of Interior Design as of 1988 (formerly the Incorporated Institute of British Decorators founded 1894)

Setting her beloved neutrals aside, decorator Alexa Hampton invigorates her young family’s Manhattan residence with rich colors and lively patterns

In many countries, several university degree courses are now available, including those on interior architecture, taking three or four years to complete.

  • Industrial facilities: manufacturing and training facilities as well as import and export facilities.[24]
  • Traffic building: includes bus station, subway station, airports, pier, etc.
  • Healthcare: the design of hospitals, assisted living facilities, medical offices, dentist offices, psychiatric facilities, laboratories, medical specialist facilities.
  • Teaching in a private institute that offer classes of interior design
  • Hospitality and recreation: includes hotels, motels, resorts, cruise ships, cafes, bars, casinos, nightclubs, theaters, music and concert halls, opera houses, sports venues, restaurants, gyms, health clubs and spas, etc.
  • Self-employment
  • Corporate: office design for any kind of business such as banks.
  • Sports: includes gyms, stadiums, swimming rooms, basketball halls, etc.
  • Institutional: government offices, financial institutions (banks and credit unions), schools and universities, religious facilities, etc.
  • Employment in private sector firms
  • Exhibition: includes museums, gallery, exhibition hall, specially the design for showroom and exhibition gallery.
  • Retail: includes malls and shopping centers, department stores, specialty stores, visual merchandising, and showrooms.
  • Visual and spatial branding: The use of space as a medium to express a corporate brand.

See how stars like Gisele Bündchen and Tom Brady, Patrick Dempsey, and Kourtney Kardashian entertain in style

“Great art and fabulous antiques only get better with age. It’s better to cry once and have a forever piece.”—Chandos Dodson Epley

What do you think of these interior design rules? Do you have any of your own to add? Share them with us in the comments below.

Alexandra Champalimaud’s Tips for Creating a Welcoming Guest Room

Illustrated catalog of the James Shoolbred Company, published in 1876.

Notable interior designers in the world today include Scott Salvator, Troy Adams, Jonathan Adler, Michael S. Smith, Martin Brudnizki, Mary Douglas Drysdale, Kelly Hoppen, Kelly Wearstler, Nina Campbell, David Collins, Nate Berkus, Sandra Espinet, Jo Hamilton and Nicky Haslam.

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“Don’t be afraid of dark. I used this rich Benjamin Moore Midnight Blue on an accent wall—darker than I’d ever dared. It made the whole space come to life.” —Jean Larette

Before you scoff and say, “Aren’t rules made to be broken?” hear us out. These rules are gold standards for a reason. Read them over before you write them off once and for all. We’re sure if you give them a fair shot you’ll easily see what a difference they can make.

The true workhorse of a living room—the ottoman—can be used to kick your feet up or corral your favorite reading materials

The art déco interior of the grand concourse at the 30th Street Station in Philadelphia

In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers. This can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect – one of the gods in Indian mythology. Additionally, the sculptures depicting ancient texts and events are seen in palaces built in 17th-century India. In medieval times wall art paintings in India have been a common feature of palace like mansions commonly known as havelis. While most traditional homes are done away with modern buildings, there are around 2000 havelis[2] in the Shekhawati region of Rajashtan that display wall art paintings.

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Use the rule of threes when styling surfaces. Image: 2LG Studio

Women in the Asir province often complete the decoration and painting of the house interior. “You could tell a family’s wealth by the paintings,” Um Abdullah says: “If they didn’t have much money, the wife could only paint the motholath,” the basic straight, simple lines, in patterns of three to six repetitions in red, green, yellow and brown.” When women did not want to paint the walls themselves, they could barter with other women who would do the work. Several Saudi women have become famous as majlis painters, such as Fatima Abou Gahas.[39]

Whether you’re just starting out in the interior design world or you’ve been here for longer than you can remember, there’s one thing we can all agree on: sometimes it’s good to go back to basics. With that sentiment in mind, today we’ve brought you three interior design rules that will totally transform the way you tackle the rooms in your home.

The color themes of Art Deco consisted of metallic color, neutral color, bright color, and black and white. In interior design, cool metallic colors including silver, gold, metallic blue, charcoal grey, and platinum tended to predominate.[29][33] Serge Chermayeff, a Russian-born British designer made extensive use of cool metallic colors and luxurious surfaces in his room schemes. His 1930 showroom design for a British dressmaking firm had a silver-grey background and black mirrored-glass wall panels.[31][34]

  • 5 Styles 5.1 Art Deco 5.2 Modern Art 5.3 Arab Materials
  • 11 External links
  • 9 See also
  • 4 Profession 4.1 Education 4.2 Working conditions
  • 6 Media popularization
  • 8 Notable interior decorators
  • 2 Interior decorators and interior designers 2.1 Interior designer 2.2 Color in interior design
  • 7 Gallery
  • 10 References
  • 1 History and current terms 1.1 Commercial interior design and management 1.2 Transition to professional interior design 1.3 Expansion
  • 3 Specialties 3.1 Residential 3.2 Commercial 3.3 Other

Typical interior of one of the houses in the Folk Architecture Reservation in Vlkolínec (Slovakia)

“I love to use wallpaper in mundane spaces. Hallways, pantries, powder rooms—all become moments of joy and funkiness. Areas of transition can be places you enjoy spending time in.”—Fawn Galli

See how the some of the world’s top designers decorate their own spaces. Get expert ideas from Nate Berkus, Michael S. Smith, Victoria Hagan, and others to bring the looks to your own home.

It is essential to interior designers to acquire a deep experience with colors, understand their psychological effects, and understand the meaning of each color in different locations and situations in order to create suitable combinations for each place.[22]

Discover 16 Dining Table Designs for Gatherings Big and Small

Throughout the 17th and 18th century and into the early 19th century, interior decoration was the concern of the homemaker, or an employed upholsterer or craftsman who would advise on the artistic style for an interior space. Architects would also employ craftsmen or artisans to complete interior design for their buildings.

From the meticulously manicured gardens to the layered interiors, the decorator’s house is an aesthetic tour de force

These are the three interior design rules that every newbie should know. Image: Alvhem Mäkleri & Interiör

“Black works with any style. The misconception is that dark colors make spaces feel smaller; they actually recede.”—Carrie Fundings Land

Think of the 3/3 vertical rule as an elegant take on ombre. Image: Blakes London

A formal education program, particularly one accredited by or developed with a professional organization of interior designers, can provide training that meets a minimum standard of excellence and therefore gives a student an education of a high standard. There are also university graduate and Ph.d. programs available for those seeking further training in a specific design specialization (i.e. gerontological or healthcare design) or those wishing to teach interior design at the university level.

“Every house should have a great bar. It is the central point of a party, and if you entertain a lot, it will be celebrated, so put some thought into it.”—Jordana Joseph

When selecting items to go in your grouping, you want to ensure that they’re different enough to create visual interest while still having a common thread to tie them together. Take the picture above, for instance. While all the accessories have varying shapes, they have a unifying color.

In his view, an elegant interior design will work in much the same way, with the darkest shade on the bottom, a medium shade in the middle, and the lightest shade on top. This can be a helpful place to start for those trying to form a color palette. It can work with both colorful hues and monochromatic shades.

Once you’ve decided which colors you’d like to use, it’s time to determine which role they’ll play in your design. That’s where the 10-30-60 rule comes in. With this rule, you’ll end up choosing a dominant shade, a secondary shade, and an accent color.

As department stores increased in number and size, retail spaces within shops were furnished in different styles as examples for customers. One particularly effective advertising tool was to set up model rooms at national and international exhibitions in showrooms for the public to see. Some of the pioneering firms in this regard were Waring & Gillow, James Shoolbred, Mintons, and Holland & Sons. These traditional high-quality furniture making firms began to play an important role as advisers to unsure middle class customers on taste and style, and began taking out contracts to design and furnish the interiors of many important buildings in Britain.[5]

The move toward decoration as a separate artistic profession unrelated to the manufacturers and retailers received an impetus with the 1899 formation of the Institute of British Decorators; with John Dibblee Crace as its president, it represented almost 200 decorators around the country.[11] By 1915, the London Directory listed 127 individuals trading as interior decorators, of which 10 were women. Rhoda and Agnes Garrett were the first women to train professionally as home decorators in 1874. The importance of their work on design was regarded at the time as on a par with that of William Morris. In 1876, their work – Suggestions for House Decoration in Painting, Woodwork and Furniture – spread their ideas on artistic interior design to a wide middle-class audience.[12]

Art Deco furnishings and lighting fixtures had a glossy, luxurious appearance with the use of inlaid wood and reflective finishes. The furniture pieces often had curved edges, geometric shapes, and clean lines.[27][31] Art Deco lighting fixtures tended to make use of stacked geometric patterns.[37]

These stylish spaces by Kelly Wearstler, Martyn Lawrence Bullard, and other decorating talents make dinner an event

“When clients want a quick, impactful update, I recommend the pieces that take up the most surface area, like rugs, paint color, or window treatments.”—Tina Ramchandani

“Majlis painting”, also called nagash painting, is the decoration of the majlis, or front parlor of traditional Arabic homes, in the Asir province of Saudi Arabia and adjoining parts of Yemen. These wall paintings, an arabesque form of mural or fresco, show various geometric designs in bright colors: “Called ‘nagash’ in Arabic, the wall paintings were a mark of pride for a woman in her house.”[39]

Commercial design encompasses a wide range of subspecialties.

With these bedroom offices, working from home never looked so good

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