A Future Perspective Over Interior Design By Geometrix

A Future Perspective Over Interior Design By Geometrix A Future Perspective Over Interior Design By Geometrix

This type of firm emerged in America after the Civil War. The Herter Brothers, founded by two German emigre brothers, began as an upholstery warehouse and became one of the first firms of furniture makers and interior decorators. With their own design office and cabinet-making and upholstery workshops, Herter Brothers were prepared to accomplish every aspect of interior furnishing including decorative paneling and mantels, wall and ceiling decoration, patterned floors, and carpets and draperies.[6]

In the past, interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building.[1] The profession of interior design has been a consequence of the development of society and the complex architecture that has resulted from the development of industrial processes. The pursuit of effective use of space, user well-being and functional design has contributed to the development of the contemporary interior design profession. The profession of interior design is separate and distinct from the role of interior decorator, a term commonly used in the US. The term is less common in the UK, where the profession of interior design is still unregulated and therefore, strictly speaking, not yet officially a profession.

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In some cases, licensed professionals review the work and sign it before submitting the design for approval by clients or construction permisioning. The need for licensed review and signature varies by locality, relevant legislation, and scope of work. Their work can involve significant travel to visit different locations. However, with technology development, the process of contacting clients and communicating design alternatives has become easier and requires less travel.[26] They also renovate a space to satisfy the specific taste for a client.

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In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers. This can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect – one of the gods in Indian mythology. Additionally, the sculptures depicting ancient texts and events are seen in palaces built in 17th-century India. In medieval times wall art paintings in India have been a common feature of palace like mansions commonly known as havelis. While most traditional homes are done away with modern buildings, there are around 2000 havelis[2] in the Shekhawati region of Rajashtan that display wall art paintings.

By the turn of the 20th century, amateur advisors and publications were increasingly challenging the monopoly that the large retail companies had on interior design. English feminist author Mary Haweis wrote a series of widely read essays in the 1880s in which she derided the eagerness with which aspiring middle-class people furnished their houses according to the rigid models offered to them by the retailers.[10] She advocated the individual adoption of a particular style, tailor made to the individual needs and preferences of the customer:

This interior was designed by John Dibblee Crace, President of the Institute of British Decorators, established in 1899.

The art déco interior of the grand concourse at the 30th Street Station in Philadelphia

Geometrix Design stands for some key-concepts that fit into a certain pattern, no other famous name  in the field does.  You would not think that green and red match in such a nice combination: in a very green environment, the red pieces of furniture make the difference. Color is the first thing that gets to your eyes when you enter this modern universe, which seems to exist in order to announce future trends.

The intriguing spaces of Design Island welcomed visitors, generated involvement and made people dream. They were created for INTERNI LEGACY by designers, artists and architects who took the opportunity to practice the skills of conveying innovative ideas and stories through the use of unusual forms and materials.

Residential design is the design of the interior of private residences. As this type design is very specific for individual situations, the needs and wants of the individual are paramount in this area of interior design. The interior designer may work on the project from the initial planning stage or may work on the remodelling of an existing structure. It is often a very involved process that takes months to fine-tune and create a space with the vision of the client.[24]

In 1882, the London Directory of the Post Office listed 80 interior decorators. Some of the most distinguished companies of the period were Crace, Waring & Gillowm and Holland & Sons; famous decorators employed by these firms included Thomas Edward Collcutt, Edward William Godwin, Charles Barry, Gottfried Semper, and George Edmund Street.[9]

Typical interior of one of the houses in the Folk Architecture Reservation in Vlkolínec (Slovakia)

Art Deco style is mainly based on geometric shapes, streamlining, and clean lines.[29][30] The style offered a sharp, cool look of mechanized living utterly at odds with anything that came before.[31]

Art Deco rejected traditional materials of decoration and interior design, opting instead to use more unusual materials such as chrome, glass, stainless steel, shiny fabrics, mirrors, aluminium, lacquer, inlaid wood, sharkskin, and zebra skin.[28] The use of harder, metallic materials was chosen to celebrate the machine age. These materials reflected the dawning modern age that was ushered in after the end of the First World War. The innovative combinations of these materials created contrasts that were very popular at the time – for example the mixing together of highly polished wood and black lacquer with satin and furs.[32] The barber shop in the Austin Reed store in London was designed by P. J. Westwood. It was soon regarded as the trendiest barber shop in Britain due to its use of metallic materials.[31]

“Small details in upholstery have a big impact on design. Seams can pack a punch. Contrast piping, contrast stitching, and flanged seams used individually create uniqueness and a level of perceived value.” — Rob Royer, CEO of Interior Define

Ellen Mazur Thomson, author of Origins of Graphic Design in America (1997), determined that professional status is achieved through education, self-imposed standards and professional gate-keeping organizations.[18] Having achieved this, interior design became an accepted profession.

Fictional interior decorators include the Sugarbaker sisters on Designing Women and Grace Adler on Will & Grace. There is also another show called Home MADE. There are two teams and two houses and whoever has the designed and made the worst room, according to the judges, is eliminated. Another show on the Style Network, hosted by Niecy Nash, is Clean House where they re-do messy homes into themed rooms that the clients would like. Other shows include Design on a Dime, Designed to Sell, and The Decorating Adventures of Ambrose Price. The show called Design Star has become more popular through the 5 seasons that have already aired. The winners of this show end up getting their own TV shows, of which are Color Splash hosted by David Bromstad, Myles of Style hosted by Kim Myles, Paint-Over! hosted by Jennifer Bertrand, The Antonio Treatment hosted by Antonio Ballatore, and finally Secrets from a Stylist hosted by Emily Henderson. Bravo also has a variety of shows that explore the lives of interior designers. These include Flipping Out, which explores the life of Jeff Lewis and his team of designers; Million Dollar Decorators explores the lives of interior designers Nathan Turner, Jeffrey Alan Marks, Mary McDonald, Kathryn Ireland, and Martyn Lawrence Bullard.

In ancient Egypt, “soul houses” or models of houses were placed in tombs as receptacles for food offerings. From these, it is possible to discern details about the interior design of different residences throughout the different Egyptian dynasties, such as changes in ventilation, porticoes, columns, loggias, windows, and doors.[3]

In many countries, several university degree courses are now available, including those on interior architecture, taking three or four years to complete.

“I’m currently being inundated with geometric patterns. We’re moving away from tight tribal repeats and more into loose, over scaled and asymmetrical shapes. Perfectly imperfect.” — Michel Smith Boyd, interior designer

As department stores increased in number and size, retail spaces within shops were furnished in different styles as examples for customers. One particularly effective advertising tool was to set up model rooms at national and international exhibitions in showrooms for the public to see. Some of the pioneering firms in this regard were Waring & Gillow, James Shoolbred, Mintons, and Holland & Sons. These traditional high-quality furniture making firms began to play an important role as advisers to unsure middle class customers on taste and style, and began taking out contracts to design and furnish the interiors of many important buildings in Britain.[5]

Interior designer implies that there is more of an emphasis on planning, functional design and the effective use of space, as compared to interior decorating. An interior designer in fineline design can undertake projects that include arranging the basic layout of spaces within a building as well as projects that require an understanding of technical issues such as window and door positioning, acoustics, and lighting.[1] Although an interior designer may create the layout of a space, they may not alter load-bearing walls without having their designs stamped for approval by a structural engineer. Interior designers often work directly with architects, engineers and contractors.

Interior design was previously seen as playing a secondary role to architecture. It also has many connections to other design disciplines, involving the work of architects, industrial designers, engineers, builders, craftsmen, etc. For these reasons, the government of interior design standards and qualifications was often incorporated into other professional organisations that involved design.[18] Organisations such as the Chartered Society of Designers, established in the UK in 1986, and the American Designers Institute, founded in 1938, governed various areas of design.

In America, Candace Wheeler was one of the first woman interior designers and helped encourage a new style of American design. She was instrumental in the development of art courses for women in a number of major American cities and was considered a national authority on homedesign. An important influence on the new profession was The Decoration of Houses, a manual of interior design written by Edith Wharton with architect Ogden Codman in 1897 in America. In the book, the authors denounced Victorian-style interior decoration and interior design, especially those rooms that were decorated with heavy window curtains, Victorian bric-a-brac, and overstuffed furniture. They argued that such rooms emphasized upholstery at the expense of proper space planning and architectural design and were, therefore, uncomfortable and rarely used. The book is considered a seminal work, and its success led to the emergence of professional decorators working in the manner advocated by its authors, most notably Elsie de Wolfe.[14]

“Life feels uncertain and chaotic right now. We are hearing more and more that our clients want to simplify their homes and interiors. To that end we believe we will be seeing more multifunctional furniture in 2019, like this chair and drink table combination from BDDW.”–Kristen Pena, interior designer

In England, Syrie Maugham became a legendary interior designer credited with designing the first all-white room. Starting her career in the early 1910s, her international reputation soon grew; she later expanded her business to New York City and Chicago.[19] Born during the Victorian Era, a time characterized by dark colors and small spaces, she instead designed rooms filled with light and furnished in multiple shades of white and mirrored screens. In addition to mirrored screens, her trademark pieces included: books covered in white vellum, cutlery with white porcelain handles, console tables with plaster palm-frond, shell, or dolphin bases, upholstered and fringed sleigh beds, fur carpets, dining chairs covered in white leather, and lamps of graduated glass balls, and wreaths.[20]

  • 5.2 Modern Art
  • 5.3 Arab Materials
  • 5.1 Art Deco

“A trend I see in furniture is a move towards handmade, custom pieces. People want to know the stories of where their pieces came from. They want to know who made it and what process was involved. A company like Fyrn is bringing handmade furniture to today with their modern, hand-crafted pieces.” — Joy Cho, founder and creative director of Oh Joy!

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The opening of Interni Legacy focused on a comparison of how the protagonists of the exhibition, who all follow a common ideology of respect for the past and heading toward the future, understand the legacy of design.

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The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the English-speaking world and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate.

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“Blush is the new neutral. It pairs with greys and naturals for a calming palette. It can be combined with bold colors like navy, forest green, or citrine, and it allows the bold color to be the hero.” — Rob Royer, CEO of Interior Define

Terracotta Art Deco sunburst design above front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles; built 1930.

“Courtyards and upper pillared porticoes are principal features of the best Nadjdi architecture, in addition to the fine incised plaster wood (jiss) and painted window shutters, which decorate the reception rooms. Good examples of plasterwork can often be seen in the gaping ruins of torn-down buildings- the effect is light, delicate and airy. It is usually around the majlis, around the coffee hearth and along the walls above where guests sat on rugs, against cushions. Doughty wondered if this “parquetting of jis”, this “gypsum fretwork… all adorning and unenclosed” originated from India. However, the Najd fretwork seems very different from that seen in the Eastern Province and Oman, which are linked to Indian traditions, and rather resembles the motifs and patterns found in ancient Mesopotamia. The rosette, the star, the triangle and the stepped pinnacle pattern of dadoes are all ancient patterns, and can be found all over the Middle East of antiquity. Al-Qassim Province seems to be the home of this art, and there it is normally worked in hard white plaster (though what you see is usually begrimed by the smoke of the coffee hearth). In Riyadh, examples can be seen in unadorned clay.[41]

“We expect the Art Deco influence to become more prominent in the coming year, inspiring both textile design and furniture silhouettes. From a color perspective, pink continues to be very strong in furniture. Given that, we expect colors that complement the blush hue to do very well—specifically, olive green, oxblood, and navy.” — Meganne Wecker, founder of Cloth & Company

When it comes to crafting the perfect home, every design enthusiast knows that furniture can make or break a space. Choosing the right pieces–either custom-made or West Elm–can elevate your entire home aesthetic. To help you make sense of the furniture trends to watch out for in 2019, we checked in with top designers and industry tastemakers for some guidance. From blush-colored upholstery to unique, handmade pieces, these are the top furniture trends to keep on your radar in 2019.

Illustration from The Grammar of Ornament (1856), by interior designer Owen Jones.

Commercial design encompasses a wide range of subspecialties.

The geometric designs and heavy lines seem to be adapted from the area’s textile and weaving patterns. “In contrast with the sobriety of architecture and decoration in the rest of Arabia, exuberant color and ornamentation characterize those of Asir. The painting extends into the house over the walls and doors, up the staircases, and onto the furniture itself. When a house is being painted, women from the community help each other finish the job. The building then displays their shared taste and knowledge. Mothers pass these on to their daughters. This artwork is based on a geometry of straight lines and suggests the patterns common to textile weaving, with solid bands of different colors. Certain motifs reappear, such as the triangular mihrab or ‘niche’ and the palmette. In the past, paint was produced from mineral and vegetable pigments. Cloves and alfalfa yielded green. Blue came from the indigo plant. Red came from pomegranates and a certain mud. Paintbrushes were created from the tough hair found in a goat’s tail. Today, however, women use modern manufactured paint to create new looks, which have become an indicator of social and economic change.”[40]

Black and white was also a very popular color scheme during the 1920s and 1930s. Black and white checkerboard tiles, floors and wallpapers were very trendy at the time.[35] As the style developed, bright vibrant colors became popular as well.[36]

The Art Deco style began in Europe in the early years of the 20th century, with the waning of Art Nouveau. The term “Art Deco” was taken from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes, a world’s fair held in Paris in 1925.[27] Art Deco rejected many traditional classical influences in favour of more streamlined geometric forms and metallic color. The Art Deco style influenced all areas of design, especially interior design, because it was the first style of interior decoration to spotlight new technologies and materials.[28]

  • Dorothy Draper
  • Arthur Stannard Vernay
  • Syrie Maugham
  • Margery Hoffman Smith
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Pierre François Léonard Fontaine
  • Elsie de Wolfe
  • Sibyl Colefax

The two week-long exhibition during FuoriSalone from 16 – 28 April entitled “INTERNI LEGACY 2012” organized by INTERNI explored the concept of legacy in design as a link between tradition from the past and visions of the future. Some of the world’s most talented and distinguished architects and designers were invited to participate in the exhibition, each creating an original and innovative experimental installation exhibited on the grounds of Milan’s State University.

  • 4.1 Education
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GLOBAL leader in solid surfaces, Staron® delivered innovation when they presented FLOW at this year’s Milan Design Week. Teaming up with award-winning Polish architect and designer Mac Stopa of Massive Design, the installation showcased bold colours, undulating spheres and balanced lineal geometrics.

“Our fascination with natural materials and the visual texture they add to our interiors will continue. Natural stones, quartzite, and, even terrazzo, used in unexpected categories, merge luxury and practicality in a way that makes indulgence a little more palatable.” — Michel Smith Boyd, interior designer

Interior design has also become the subject of radio shows. In the U.S., popular interior design & lifestyle shows include Martha Stewart Living and Living Large featuring Karen Mills. Famous interior designers whose work is featured on these programs include Bunny Williams, Barbara Barry, and Kathy Ireland, among others.

“Next year, embrace a curvy design aesthetic. 1970’s-inspired rounded furniture will continue to take over. Rounded back chairs are a chic way to bring the curvy trend into your home.” — Anne Hepfer, interior designer

  • Teaching in a private institute that offer classes of interior design
  • Retail: includes malls and shopping centers, department stores, specialty stores, visual merchandising, and showrooms.
  • Exhibition: includes museums, gallery, exhibition hall, specially the design for showroom and exhibition gallery.
  • Traffic building: includes bus station, subway station, airports, pier, etc.
  • Visual and spatial branding: The use of space as a medium to express a corporate brand.
  • Industrial facilities: manufacturing and training facilities as well as import and export facilities.[24]
  • Institutional: government offices, financial institutions (banks and credit unions), schools and universities, religious facilities, etc.
  • Corporate: office design for any kind of business such as banks.
  • Employment in private sector firms
  • Healthcare: the design of hospitals, assisted living facilities, medical offices, dentist offices, psychiatric facilities, laboratories, medical specialist facilities.
  • Self-employment
  • Sports: includes gyms, stadiums, swimming rooms, basketball halls, etc.
  • Hospitality and recreation: includes hotels, motels, resorts, cruise ships, cafes, bars, casinos, nightclubs, theaters, music and concert halls, opera houses, sports venues, restaurants, gyms, health clubs and spas, etc.

By 1900, the situation was described by The Illustrated Carpenter and Builder:

Design Island, in the tradition of the Interni exhibition for FuoriSalone, comprises special designs created to welcome visitors and encourage them to share the space and their ideas. They express the concept of public living, inflected by forms, ideas and materials that transmit innovation and creativity. Yet the intention is also for this to be a space where one can have fun, relax and rest from the tour de force that is the week in Milan.

‘The concept of legacy is rooted in organic forms so when I was thinking about the project for [Interni] Legacy, it occurred to me that the design itself could resemble an organic form. My installation is like a natural riverbed. The intention was to develop an installation that would be simple to make, as experience has shown me that simplicity of production is important, particularly nowadays. I think I’ve managed to achieve this; the design of FLOW is based on one single form, all panels are identical and only one mold is needed. At the deepest point of the curve you can see a change of colour which helps to maximize perspective.’ (Mac Stopa)

Art Deco furnishings and lighting fixtures had a glossy, luxurious appearance with the use of inlaid wood and reflective finishes. The furniture pieces often had curved edges, geometric shapes, and clean lines.[27][31] Art Deco lighting fixtures tended to make use of stacked geometric patterns.[37]

Illustrated catalog of the James Shoolbred Company, published in 1876.

The interior design profession became more established after World War II. From the 1950s onwards, spending on the home increased. Interior design courses were established, requiring the publication of textbooks and reference sources. Historical accounts of interior designers and firms distinct from the decorative arts specialists were made available. Organisations to regulate education, qualifications, standards and practices, etc. were established for the profession.[18]

The move toward decoration as a separate artistic profession unrelated to the manufacturers and retailers received an impetus with the 1899 formation of the Institute of British Decorators; with John Dibblee Crace as its president, it represented almost 200 decorators around the country.[11] By 1915, the London Directory listed 127 individuals trading as interior decorators, of which 10 were women. Rhoda and Agnes Garrett were the first women to train professionally as home decorators in 1874. The importance of their work on design was regarded at the time as on a par with that of William Morris. In 1876, their work – Suggestions for House Decoration in Painting, Woodwork and Furniture – spread their ideas on artistic interior design to a wide middle-class audience.[12]

This year, the Design Island collection again delivered a positive surprise with its distinctive, playful and ingenious tone and it successfully welcomed the diverse public of Interni Legacy. The design concepts of reunion and reception were interpreted in terms of architecture and art in astonishing works such as Arrow, a marble chaise longue by Ora Ïto, made in collaboration with GVM; Bush of Iron by Nacho Carbonell for Rossana Orlandi Gallery, or the ethereal Reverb Wire Chair, made of steel rods by Brodie Neill in cooperation with Marzorati Ronchetti. The technology in Quartz spaces, performed with Samsung and designed by Marc Sadler, was an indispensible element, together with its counterpart, a playful and poetic figure of Nuvola Domestica (domestic cloud), a flexible form of a big pet to play with, in Cortile d’Onore.

  • Interior design
  • Architectural design
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  • 1.1 Commercial interior design and management
  • 1.3 Expansion
  • 1.2 Transition to professional interior design

Interior design has become the subject of television shows. In the United Kingdom, popular interior design and decorating programs include 60 Minute Makeover (ITV), Changing Rooms (BBC), and Selling Houses (Channel 4). Famous interior designers whose work is featured in these programs include Linda Barker and Laurence Llewelyn-Bowen. In the United States, the TLC Network aired a popular program called Trading Spaces, a show based on the UK program Changing Rooms. In addition, both HGTV and the DIY Network also televise many programs about interior design and decorating, featuring the works of a variety of interior designers, decorators, and home improvement experts in a myriad of projects.

  • 2.2 Color in interior design
  • 2.1 Interior designer
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Notable interior designers in the world today include Scott Salvator, Troy Adams, Jonathan Adler, Michael S. Smith, Martin Brudnizki, Mary Douglas Drysdale, Kelly Hoppen, Kelly Wearstler, Nina Campbell, David Collins, Nate Berkus, Sandra Espinet, Jo Hamilton and Nicky Haslam.


Throughout the 17th and 18th century and into the early 19th century, interior decoration was the concern of the homemaker, or an employed upholsterer or craftsman who would advise on the artistic style for an interior space. Architects would also employ craftsmen or artisans to complete interior design for their buildings.

There are various paths that one can take to become a professional interior designer. All of these paths involve some form of training. Working with a successful professional designer is an informal method of training and has previously been the most common method of education. In many states, however, this path alone cannot lead to licensing as a professional interior designer. Training through an institution such as a college, art or design school or university is a more formal route to professional practice.

These are only parts of an inspiring place, which also includes modern and elegant offices with the most interesting lamps someone could think of. Light and the way it falls on different objects is very important; the way of disposing the colorful lamps on the walls animates everything around, like in a children’s game.  The modernity of the design suggests an attractive perspective over the future; looking around, you get the impression this is what future stands for, no matter what happens next.

FLOW According to Mac Stopa, founder of Massive Design studio specializing in corporate interior design (e.g. for Coca-Cola, Google and Microsoft), ‘the legacy of the past is one of organic forms, designs and colors’. These are the elements he decided to reproduce and reinterpret in a contemporary way in his installation titled “FLOW”, in which the flow is generated by twenty thermoformed panels of Staron whose wave-like, semi-spherical geometry is brought out by the use of contrasting colors, from chocolate to yellow, orange to white. Such a chromatic combination evokes the Impressionists, as well as the hues of graphics and fashion. Staron Solid Surface is a new generation material composed of natural minerals bonded with acrylic and is noted for its great resistance and flexibility. It is a product of Samsung Cheil Industries, a partner in the development of this installation.

Set in the monumental green corner of Cortile d’Onore in Milan’s State University, the exhibition was a dual reflection of ‘Mac’ Stopa’s flair for innovative and unconventional design of commercial interiors and the form flexibility of Staron® Solid Surfaces.

text by Antonella Galli, photos by Saverio Lombardi Vallauri

In the 1950s and 1960s, upholsterers began to expand their business remits. They framed their business more broadly and in artistic terms and began to advertise their furnishings to the public. To meet the growing demand for contract interior work on projects such as offices, hotels, and public buildings, these businesses became much larger and more complex, employing builders, joiners, plasterers, textile designers, artists, and furniture designers, as well as engineers and technicians to fulfil the job. Firms began to publish and circulate catalogs with prints for different lavish styles to attract the attention of expanding middle classes.[4]

At night the installation became illuminated with backlit panels, casting off its flowing designs on to visitors as they relaxed on Staron® seats placed around the design. The exhibition attracted local and international guests with Staron® hosting a cocktail night to celebrate the installation and showcase the flexible design enabled by Staron® Solid Surfaces.

On the afternoon of 16 April, the stage of Aula Magna of the University of Milan became an arena of excellence for the press conference which, as usual, inaugurates the Interni exhibition/event. Elegantly moderated by Philippe Daverio, the press conference was an opportunity for a collective presentation and reflection on different ways of understanding the theme proposed by Interni. The variety of backgrounds of the numerous designers who represented different parts of the world (China, Japan, Russia and Poland), allowed for a broader look at unusual issues and visions.

  • 3.1 Residential
  • 3.3 Other
  • 3.2 Commercial
  • Music off
  • Music on
  • 11 External links
  • 6 Media popularization
  • 10 References
  • 9 See also
  • 2 Interior decorators and interior designers 2.1 Interior designer 2.2 Color in interior design
  • 1 History and current terms 1.1 Commercial interior design and management 1.2 Transition to professional interior design 1.3 Expansion
  • 4 Profession 4.1 Education 4.2 Working conditions
  • 7 Gallery
  • 5 Styles 5.1 Art Deco 5.2 Modern Art 5.3 Arab Materials
  • 3 Specialties 3.1 Residential 3.2 Commercial 3.3 Other
  • 8 Notable interior decorators

Architect The concept of the installation is based on geometry. My intention was to achieve simplicity in production. When choosing a hinge as a means to link the panels, my inspiration was the world of fashion. With a view of saving as much energy as possible, I also wanted my installation to be easy to manufacture and requiring only a few tools.

Modern design grew out of the decorative arts, mostly from the Art Deco, in the early 20th century.[38] One of the first to introduce this style was Frank Lloyd Wright, who hadn’t become hugely popularized until completing the house called Fallingwater in the 1930s. Modern art reached its peak in the 1950s and ’60s, which is why designers and decorators today may refer to modern design as being “mid-century.”[38] Modern art does not refer to the era or age of design and is not the same as contemporary design, a term used by interior designers for a shifting group of recent styles and trends.[38]

Enrico Decleva, Chancellor of the University of Milan, which was hosting the annual event for the fourth time at the seat of the University, offered his warm welcome. He was followed by Stefano De Alessandri, director general of Mondadori magazines, Stefano Boeri, councillor of the Municipality of Milan and the two principal partners of Interni Legacy; Claudio Carpentieri of Mini, and Gennady Terebkov and Elena Baturina from Be Open. Finally, Michele De Lucchi and Alessandro Mendini celebrated their joint birthday by reading out an extract from their unpublished text titled “Un bosco con la nebbia e una luce in fondo al sentiero” (A foggy wood and a light at the end of the path) to the accompaniment of music by Lorenzo Palmieri and Davide Ferrario.

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There are a wide range of working conditions and employment opportunities within interior design. Large and tiny corporations often hire interior designers as employees on regular working hours. Designers for smaller firms and online renovation platforms usually work on a contract or per-job basis. Self-employed designers, which make up 26% of interior designers,[25] usually work the most hours. Interior designers often work under stress to meet deadlines, stay on budget, and meet clients’ needs.

Combining colors together could result in creating a state of mind as seen by the observer, and could eventually result in positive or negative effects on them. Colors make the room feel either more calm, cheerful, comfortable, stressful, or dramatic. Color combination make a tiny room seem larger or smaller.[23] So it is the Interior designer profession to choose appropriate colors for a place in a way people want to look and feel in the space.[22]

“I think the FuoriSalone and the INTERNI LEGACY exhibition is one of the greatest design events in the world. It allows designers and architects to ‘think outside the box’ – completely outside the box. In our regular life, we are designing things that have to be functional. Often we have limits put on us. But now, in this situation, in this beautiful scenario, we can do whatever we want. However, it must relate to the theme that INTERNI is setting every year. And setting such themes is also a great thing because INTERNI is always thinking about the main topics that are important in design today and in the future. During FuoriSalone, the city becomes one gigantic exhibition of contemporary art and design of great cultural and social significance, which is open to the public and generates enormous interest. I consider the opportunity to participate in this prestigious event to be not only a great professional achievement, but quite an honor as well.”

Elsie De Wolfe was one of the first interior designers. Rejecting the Victorian style she grew up with, she chose a more vibrant scheme, along with more comfortable furniture in the home. Her designs were light, with fresh colors and delicate Chinoiserie furnishings, as opposed to the Victorian preference of heavy, red drapes and upholstery, dark wood and intensely patterned wallpapers. Her designs were also more practical;[15] she eliminated the clutter that occupied the Victorian home, enabling people to entertain more guests comfortably. In 1905, de Wolfe was commissioned for the interior design of the Colony Club on Madison Avenue; its interiors garnered her recognition almost over night.[16][17] She compiled her ideas into her widely read 1913 book, The House in Good Taste.[18]

“The pendulum is swinging from crisp white, softly textural Scandinavian-inspired Hygge back to vivid, high-contrast patterns and big statement mixing of materials and scale. As the volume continues to turn up in the world around us, people will continue to become more daring with their interior choices.”–Emilie Munroe, interior designer

The interior walls of the home are brightly painted by the women, who work in defined patterns with lines, triangles, squares, diagonals and tree-like patterns. “Some of the large triangles represent mountains. Zigzag lines stand for water and also for lightning. Small triangles, especially when the widest area is at the top, are found in pre-Islamic representations of female figures. That the small triangles found in the wall paintings in ‘Asir are called banat may be a cultural remnant of a long-forgotten past.”[39]

“One of my strongest convictions, and one of the first canons of good taste, is that our houses, like the fish’s shell and the bird’s nest, ought to represent our individual taste and habits.

An electric wire reel reused as a center table at a Rio de Janeiro decoration fair

It is essential to interior designers to acquire a deep experience with colors, understand their psychological effects, and understand the meaning of each color in different locations and situations in order to create suitable combinations for each place.[22]


Milan Design Week or “FuoriSalone” in Italian, is one of the most innovative and highly attended design events in the world. Organized for the first time in 1990 by INTERNI magazine, FuoriSaloni and the Salone Internazionale del Mobile, which in 2013 will celebrate its 52nd anniversary, each year in April make the city of Milan the undisputed design capital of the world.

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“I am currently coveting anything in natural stone with a modern line. I love the idea of an all-Calacatta marble dining table mixed with a lighter weight dining chair to juxtapose visual weight in a dining space. Make that chair a vintage lightweight rattan piece, and you have a combination that feels refined, but still casual and cool.” — Justine Macfee, interior designer

Color is a powerful design tool in decoration, as well as in interior design, which is the art of composing and coordinating colors together to create a stylish scheme on the interior architecture of the space.[21]

Installment by L. Gargantini for the Bolzano fair, 1957. Photo by Paolo Monti (Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC).

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Many of the most famous designers and decorators during the 20th century had no formal training. Some examples include Sister Parish, Robert Denning and Vincent Fourcade, Kerry Joyce, Kelly Wearstler, Stéphane Boudin, Georges Geffroy, Emilio Terry, Carlos de Beistegui, Nina Petronzio, Lorenzo Mongiardino, and David Nightingale Hicks.

A formal education program, particularly one accredited by or developed with a professional organization of interior designers, can provide training that meets a minimum standard of excellence and therefore gives a student an education of a high standard. There are also university graduate and Ph.d. programs available for those seeking further training in a specific design specialization (i.e. gerontological or healthcare design) or those wishing to teach interior design at the university level.

References External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Interior design.

“Beds are going to be more womb-like. There are so many things going on in the world, and we desire to feel nurtured and protected when we are sleeping and/or relaxing. Lots of upholstered headboards and footboards will be sheathed in comfortable textiles that feel like a warm hug.” — Joy Moyler, interior designer

“Ubiquitous design is now a thing of the past while antiques are an exciting nod to the design future. People want their rooms to have soul, a personality, and tell a story. With wonderful sites like Viyet, Chairish and 1st Dibs, antiques are having a major comeback.” — CeCe Barfield, interior designer

“Until recently when a man wanted to furnish he would visit all the dealers and select piece by piece of furniture ….Today he sends for a dealer in art furnishings and fittings who surveys all the rooms in the house and he brings his artistic mind to bear on the subject.


A pivotal figure in popularizing theories of interior design to the middle class was the architect Owen Jones, one of the most influential design theorists of the nineteenth century.[7] Jones’ first project was his most important—in 1851, he was responsible for not only the decoration of Joseph Paxton’s gigantic Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition but also the arrangement of the exhibits within. He chose a controversial palette of red, yellow, and blue for the interior ironwork and, despite initial negative publicity in the newspapers, was eventually unveiled by Queen Victoria to much critical acclaim. His most significant publication was The Grammar of Ornament (1856),[8] in which Jones formulated 37 key principles of interior design and decoration.

Interior designers must be highly skilled in order to create interior environments that are functional, safe, and adhere to building codes, regulations and ADA requirements. They go beyond the selection of color palettes and furnishings and apply their knowledge to the development of construction documents, occupancy loads, healthcare regulations and sustainable design principles, as well as the management and coordination of professional services including mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and life safety—all to ensure that people can live, learn or work in an innocuous environment that is also aesthetically pleasing.

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“Majlis painting”, also called nagash painting, is the decoration of the majlis, or front parlor of traditional Arabic homes, in the Asir province of Saudi Arabia and adjoining parts of Yemen. These wall paintings, an arabesque form of mural or fresco, show various geometric designs in bright colors: “Called ‘nagash’ in Arabic, the wall paintings were a mark of pride for a woman in her house.”[39]


“Out with the old, in with the oxidized oak. 2019 will bring more furniture and cabinetry that is a blackened version of our tried and true white oak. It will provide the comfort and grounding people are looking for in their spaces.”–Kristen Pena, interior designer

Fluid and organic forms define the arrangement of Staron panels in the installation created by Polish architect, Mac Stopa, together with Samsung Cheil Industries

“A return to handcrafted authenticity, especially when it comes to furniture and decorative arts versus buying mass produced pieces will be much more popular in 2019.”–Andria Mitsakos, Oil Nut Bay


This smart environment  is quite futuristic and makes you think more about a spaceship than a normal house.  Everything seems to be concentrated in a space, which seems to be the perfect combination of interesting furniture, all kinds of shapes and forms that make you think about future, highest quality materials, colorful lamps on the walls reflected in the kitchen furniture, hanging chairs.

“Metals will be used in more interesting ways and will be more popular than ever, but no more rose gold. Whether’s it’s gold, brass or blackened metals, they will be used in a lacy or massed ways. They will definitely be more interesting and designed in a more sculptural-based manner than in the past. There’s a strong push towards art as function.” — Joy Moyler, interior designer

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In the mid-to-late 19th century, interior design services expanded greatly, as the middle class in industrial countries grew in size and prosperity and began to desire the domestic trappings of wealth to cement their new status. Large furniture firms began to branch out into general interior design and management, offering full house furnishings in a variety of styles. This business model flourished from the mid-century to 1914, when this role was increasingly usurped by independent, often amateur, designers. This paved the way for the emergence of the professional interior design in the mid-20th century.[4]

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“Imagine savoring sweet dreams at home nestled beneath sumptuous fabrics. Upholstering your headboard in jewel-toned velvet adds a touch of sophistication in the often subdued sanctuary of any bedroom.”–Patrick Ediger, interior designer

Other areas of specialization include amusement and theme park design, museum and exhibition design, exhibit design, event design (including ceremonies, weddings, baby and bridal showers, parties, conventions, and concerts), interior and prop styling, craft styling, food styling, product styling, tablescape design, theatre and performance design, stage and set design, scenic design, and production design for film and television. Beyond those, interior designers, particularly those with graduate education, can specialize in healthcare design, gerontological design, educational facility design, and other areas that require specialized knowledge. Some university programs offer graduate studies in theses and other areas. For example, both Cornell University and the University of Florida offer interior design graduate programs in environment and behavior studies.

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It was not until later that specific representation for the interior design profession was developed. The US National Society of Interior Designers was established in 1957, while in the UK the Interior Decorators and Designers Association was established in 1966. Across Europe, other organisations such as The Finnish Association of Interior Architects (1949) were being established and in 1994 the International Interior Design Association was founded.[18]

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FLOW was made up of twenty thermoformed Staron® panels each sharing identical geometry with designs based on semi spherical and organic waves. It flaunted the flexibility and seamless finish of Staron® Solid Surfaces which is made from a blend of natural minerals taken from bauxite and pure acrylic resin. Enhanced by its colour palette of dark Staron® in Onyx against the brighter colours of Sunflower and California Poppy, FLOW became a continuous surface composition of visual contrasts and bright lines which performed like one piece.

Women in the Asir province often complete the decoration and painting of the house interior. “You could tell a family’s wealth by the paintings,” Um Abdullah says: “If they didn’t have much money, the wife could only paint the motholath,” the basic straight, simple lines, in patterns of three to six repetitions in red, green, yellow and brown.” When women did not want to paint the walls themselves, they could barter with other women who would do the work. Several Saudi women have become famous as majlis painters, such as Fatima Abou Gahas.[39]

Photographs and pillows, fine ostrich leather and futuristic carpets, heated towel rails and aperitif bottles: the most disparate elements became a pretext for inventions and stories, enclosed in spaces of serenity and color.

Mac Stopa, chief architect and designer of the corporate interior design firm Massive Design, exhibited his FLOW installation as part of the INTERNI LEGACY exhibition. In the 22 year history of the exhibitions organized by INTERNI during the FuoriSalone, Mac Stopa is the first Polish architect to have taken part in this prestigious event. In his FLOW installation, the curved panels reinterpret the heritage of geometry, reminding us of certain works of architecture by Antoni Gaudi and the world of art and fashion. Each of the twenty thermoformed Staron® panels has a geometric design based on semispherical and organic waves enhanced by contrasting color combinations. Arranged like a meandering river bed on the monumental green corner of the extraordinary Cortile d’Onore in Milan’s State University, FLOW underlines Mac Stopa’s talent for creating innovative and unconventional commercial interiors and products as well as the flexibility of Staron®, a solid surface material composed of natural minerals bonded with acrylic produced by Samsung Cheil Industries Inc.

About his FLOW installation, Mac Stopa said, “The concept of legacy is rooted in organic forms, designs and colors. I designed FLOW using advanced geometry and a combination of contrasting colors and textures that allowed me to create the impression of a moving geometric composition with changing organic forms, depending on the angle from which one views the installation and the way the light hits it. Each thermoformed panel has a height of 2.5 meters (8 ft. 4 in.) and identical geometry, creating a design that “flows” into different geometric forms. When one walks around the installation, one can see contrasting colors that change into the shape of an “X, an “S,” the shape of an eye, or the feminine shape of a corset, for example. This ‘cheating of the eye’ is achieved at the point where you have the deepest curve in the panel and two different colors and structures connected together. When a panel is turned at any angle, it maximizes or minimizes its perspective. Also, to make use of any leftover materials, I designed a series of modular FLOW stools, which not only provided a welcome place for visitors to sit and relax while viewing the installation, but also allowed them to touch and feel the Staron® material firsthand.“

Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space. An interior designer is someone who plans, researches, coordinates, and manages such projects. Interior design is a multifaceted profession that includes conceptual development, space planning, site inspections, programming, research, communicating with the stakeholders of a project, construction management, and execution of the design.

Someone may wish to specialize and develop technical knowledge specific to one area or type of interior design, such as residential design, commercial design, hospitality design, healthcare design, universal design, exhibition design, furniture design, and spatial branding. Interior design is a creative profession that is relatively new, constantly evolving, and often confusing to the public. It is not an artistic pursuit and relies on research from many fields to provide a well-trained understanding of how people are influenced by their environments.

Created by technology leader Samsung, Staron® Solid Surfaces can be applied beyond the extents of the commercial and into applications within the home. As a durable surface and with sustainable design in mind, Samsung has created a product that can be reused and recreated into other projects. With over 80 colours to choose from and the possibility to thermoform surfaces into any shape imaginable, FLOW demonstrates just how unlimited we are when it comes to achieving aesthetically pleasing and yet form functioning design.

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Interior design is the art and science of understanding people’s behavior to create functional spaces within a building. Decoration is the furnishing or adorning of a space with fashionable or beautiful things. In short, interior designers may decorate, but decorators do not design.

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Jones was employed by some of the leading interior design firms of the day; in the 1860s, he worked in collaboration with the London firm Jackson & Graham to produce furniture and other fittings for high-profile clients including art collector Alfred Morrison as well as Ismail Pasha, Khedive of Egypt.

Many interior design magazines exist to offer advice regarding color palette, furniture, art, and other elements that fall under the umbrella of interior design. These magazine often focus on related subjects to draw a more specific audience. For instance, architecture as a primary aspect of Dwell, while Veranda is well known as a luxury living magazine. Lonny Magazine and the newly relaunched, Domino Magazine, cater to a young, hip, metropolitan audience, and emphasize accessibility and a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach to interior design.

The color themes of Art Deco consisted of metallic color, neutral color, bright color, and black and white. In interior design, cool metallic colors including silver, gold, metallic blue, charcoal grey, and platinum tended to predominate.[29][33] Serge Chermayeff, a Russian-born British designer made extensive use of cool metallic colors and luxurious surfaces in his room schemes. His 1930 showroom design for a British dressmaking firm had a silver-grey background and black mirrored-glass wall panels.[31][34]

  • 1960s decor
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  • American Society of Interior Designers
  • Blueprint
  • Fuzzy architectural spatial analysis
  • Primitive decorating
  • Chartered Society of Designers incorporating the British Institute of Interior Design as of 1988 (formerly the Incorporated Institute of British Decorators founded 1894)
  • Japanese Interior Design
  • Experiential interior design
  • Interior design regulation in the United States
  • Interior architecture
  • Wall decals
  • Window treatment
  • British Institute of Interior Design
  • Environmental psychology and Interior design psychology
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